An Installment Agreement with the IRS allows taxpayers to pay their back taxes to the IRS through monthly payments. This is a viable option for taxpayers who cannot afford to immediately pay their tax liability in full. There are guidelines regarding how the IRS determines the payment amount and time frame for the agreement. A taxpayer must also be compliant with all past tax filings before establishing the agreement. Depending on the circumstances and the amount of time that the IRS has left to collect the tax debt, the Installment Agreement may pay all or part of the back tax liability.